V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike

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KurtF
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #3

Post by KurtF »

Another AMAZING project! And this one is highly educational too. Thanks for sharing all these FC workflow examples, with excellent illustration and writing. Any chance I could commission you to start work on a 3d-printable transmission for my old Acura?

If I'm not mistaken, this is a Harley engine, right? With V-angled cylinders both connected to the same crank, you get that characteristic, violent stutter: B-BOOM, B-BOOM B-BOOM!

But then again, if the frame can handle FC's solver, the TNP problem, and the Part workbench... it'll hold up to a Harley! Question is... will your sphincter survive?
May whatever Higher Power you believe in bless the Ukrainians. They are a decent people who never hurt anybody.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #2

Post by NewJoker »

ppemawm wrote: Sat Apr 16, 2022 3:35 pm Due to limitations in PartDesign the tubes were modeled as solid rather than the hollow tubes as called out in the drawing.
May I ask what specific limitations of PD workbench prevented this frame from being modeled as hollow and if you know a way to overcome them with different workbenches ?

This project is extremely impressive and can serve as an example for people doubting the power of FreeCAD. Hopefully, you will be able to share the files for educational purposes once you finish the project. GrabCAD could be a good place to do this.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #2

Post by Kunda1 »

NewJoker wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 8:21 am May I ask what specific limitations of PD workbench prevented this frame from being modeled as hollow and if you know a way to overcome them with different workbenches ?
I asked already ;) and ppemawm answered:
ppemawm wrote: Sun Apr 17, 2022 1:28 pm
Kunda1 wrote: Sun Apr 17, 2022 11:50 am It would be excellent if you delineated what tools are missing for you (maybe a separate post?)
I am making notes so will do that in a separate post after completing the project. There are some basics that should have been improved since V0.13 IMHO. That is the intent of this project since I have become somewhat disillusioned with the development process and all the undue attention given the perceived topological naming problem. Even so, I continue to be an avid FreeCAD supporter.
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ppemawm
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #3

Post by ppemawm »

Thanks to all for all your kind comments.
KurtF wrote: Thu Apr 28, 2022 11:30 pm Any chance I could commission you to start work on a 3d-printable transmission for my old Acura?
If you are serious, please private message me and we can discuss. If you have the actual hardware, make some measurements, hand sketches, and we can create the miniature models for printing. Fun project. BTW that is how the 9-cylinder Clerget aeromotor model referenced in the first post was created.
KurtF wrote: Thu Apr 28, 2022 11:30 pm If I'm not mistaken, this is a Harley engine, right?
Similar but not quite. For a more faithful miniature reproduction see here: https://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic. ... 88#p213588 and here: https://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic. ... 91#p211891. No assembly workbench was used.
NewJoker wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 8:21 am May I ask what specific limitations of PD workbench prevented this frame from being modeled as hollow and if you know a way to overcome them with different workbenches ?
PD does not have a productive means to model the intersection of hollow tubes whereas the Part workbench does (Join Walled Objects). See here for guidance: https://forum.freecadweb.org/viewtopic. ... 56#p140856 Note the messy convoluted model tree in the second image. I do not prefer the CSG Part workbench approach but rather the more modern linear PD process. Wouldn't that be super if the two workbenches were cleanly integrated without duplication? We would have a worldclass mechanical design package.
NewJoker wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 8:21 am Hopefully, you will be able to share the files
It is not possible without permission from the author of the Udemy tutorial which is doubtful since he has monetized the drawings. I'll try to share the process as long as there is continued interest.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #3

Post by chrisb »

ppemawm wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 2:23 pm It is not possible without permission from the author of the Udemy tutorial which is doubtful since he has monetized the drawings. I'll try to share the process as long as there is continued interest.
As you both invested time and expertise, he may want to monetize a FreeCAD version and give you a reasonable share. Similar to an author/translator relationship.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #3

Post by KurtF »

ppemawm wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 2:23 pm If you are serious,
Oh, I forgot to mention I only have a resin printer. Now you can see the humor. :-) Or attempt thereto.

On a more serious note, since some poor soul's sphincter could be at risk, would it be too much trouble (and is there room) to go ahead and split the crank, and put each on a separate one offset the correct amount to give an even firing rhythm? I guess that would require re-calculation of the balance weights, too? Excellent work and tech writing!
May whatever Higher Power you believe in bless the Ukrainians. They are a decent people who never hurt anybody.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #4

Post by ppemawm »

I spent the week working on the transmission internals including the input and output shafts, gears, clutch assembly, and some of the shift mechanism. A few comments may be found in the image captions that follow:

.<br />None of the model bodies required for the transmission are particularly difficult to create and the assembly is quite straight forward.  The bodies' LCS are simply assembled (attached) to the shaft LCS(s) and spaced axially using the Attachment Offset properties as required.  I opted for several sub-assemblies shown in the model tree to make up the transmission assembly.<br /><br />The only complicating factor in the final transmission assembly is the accurate alignment of the gear mesh.  This was done by adjusting the Attachment Offset of each gear's default LCS by the proper amount that depends on the number of teeth.  You usually need to rotate the LCS about the Y axis in this case a half tooth or 360 deg divided by that gear's number of teeth divided by 2.<br /><br />Only part of the shift mechanism has been completed at this point in time.<br /><br />The large sub-assembly on the end of the output shaft opposite the chain sprocket is the clutch pack.  The large gear in the clutch sub-assembly will be meshed with the gear on the crankshaft in the top assembly of the engine/transmission sub-assembly.
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None of the model bodies required for the transmission are particularly difficult to create and the assembly is quite straight forward. The bodies' LCS are simply assembled (attached) to the shaft LCS(s) and spaced axially using the Attachment Offset properties as required. I opted for several sub-assemblies shown in the model tree to make up the transmission assembly.

The only complicating factor in the final transmission assembly is the accurate alignment of the gear mesh. This was done by adjusting the Attachment Offset of each gear's default LCS by the proper amount that depends on the number of teeth. You usually need to rotate the LCS about the Y axis in this case a half tooth or 360 deg divided by that gear's number of teeth divided by 2.

Only part of the shift mechanism has been completed at this point in time.

The large sub-assembly on the end of the output shaft opposite the chain sprocket is the clutch pack. The large gear in the clutch sub-assembly will be meshed with the gear on the crankshaft in the top assembly of the engine/transmission sub-assembly.
Capture24.JPG (300.66 KiB) Viewed 2595 times
.<br />There are quite a few bodies in the clutch assembly but none are too difficult to model.  The linear and polar link array tool was useful for assembling many of the duplicate bodies as you can see in the model tree.  I use these so often that it is convenient to include them in an Assembly4 custom toolbar.  A transparency toggle macro key and the Part &gt; Mirror are also frequently useful.<br /><br />Note that Assembly4 can save an exploded version as a custom configuration in a spreadsheet.  The links must be spaced manually though which can be a bit tedious.<br /><br />You may also notice that I have the Fasteners toolbar on the far right.  This makes it easier to identify and add fasteners since Assembly4 can only identify the fastener by its ISO or ASME codes.
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There are quite a few bodies in the clutch assembly but none are too difficult to model. The linear and polar link array tool was useful for assembling many of the duplicate bodies as you can see in the model tree. I use these so often that it is convenient to include them in an Assembly4 custom toolbar. A transparency toggle macro key and the Part > Mirror are also frequently useful.

Note that Assembly4 can save an exploded version as a custom configuration in a spreadsheet. The links must be spaced manually though which can be a bit tedious.

You may also notice that I have the Fasteners toolbar on the far right. This makes it easier to identify and add fasteners since Assembly4 can only identify the fastener by its ISO or ASME codes.
Capture25.JPG (232.04 KiB) Viewed 2595 times
.<br />One handy thing I discovered when trying to model the springs in the clutch and shock absorber is a simple process for creating a variable pitch spring as shown in the image.<br /><br />The process starts with a PD sketch of the spring wire diameter located at the proper radial location.  Then, you can use the Additive Helix tool to create each section of the spring.  In this example there are three sections, a middle section with reduced pitch end turns.  To create the transition between sections simply use the last face of the previous section to create the next spring of different pitch and number of turns as shown in the image.<br /><br />One caveat as you might have guessed is that the sections depend on each other so if you change any of the spring parameters it is likely that any downstream Additive Helix will fail.  In that case you have to recreate the following sections using the new faces.
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One handy thing I discovered when trying to model the springs in the clutch and shock absorber is a simple process for creating a variable pitch spring as shown in the image.

The process starts with a PD sketch of the spring wire diameter located at the proper radial location. Then, you can use the Additive Helix tool to create each section of the spring. In this example there are three sections, a middle section with reduced pitch end turns. To create the transition between sections simply use the last face of the previous section to create the next spring of different pitch and number of turns as shown in the image.

One caveat as you might have guessed is that the sections depend on each other so if you change any of the spring parameters it is likely that any downstream Additive Helix will fail. In that case you have to recreate the following sections using the new faces.
Capture27.jpg (203.46 KiB) Viewed 2595 times
.<br />One ingenious (IMO) feature of Assembly4 allows you to model in context which is essential for top-down original design of an assembly.  You have the ability to model as a separate body located at the global axis or in-place using the link  in the sub-assembly or top assembly as shown in this image.<br /><br />This allows you to visually check clearances with surrounding components when modifying or creating new features.  The feature sketch is placed on the body or link origin planes and offset as necessary to easily avoid the dreaded topological renaming problem.  <br /><br />One may think that attaching sketches to the feature faces is easy but you soon learn that creating a model that depends on itself severely limits the changes that can be made. This destroys the productivity gained by taking the shortcut.   It is easily avoided in FreeCAD IMHO.  <br /><br />A model is only as good as its ability to be changed without breaking.
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One ingenious (IMO) feature of Assembly4 allows you to model in context which is essential for top-down original design of an assembly. You have the ability to model as a separate body located at the global axis or in-place using the link in the sub-assembly or top assembly as shown in this image.

This allows you to visually check clearances with surrounding components when modifying or creating new features. The feature sketch is placed on the body or link origin planes and offset as necessary to easily avoid the dreaded topological renaming problem.

One may think that attaching sketches to the feature faces is easy but you soon learn that creating a model that depends on itself severely limits the changes that can be made. This destroys the productivity gained by taking the shortcut. It is easily avoided in FreeCAD IMHO.

A model is only as good as its ability to be changed without breaking.
Capture28.JPG (307.46 KiB) Viewed 2595 times
.<br />All the gears were created by using the Gears workbench which places a solid gear blank in the Body.  But, unfortunately, it does not seem like there is any way to use it in PD without first dragging the gear out of and back into the Body to create a Basefeature to which you can add features.  <br /><br />The alternative is to use the PD &gt; Involute Gear which creates a wire directly in the body that can be immediately padded and features added.  The downside is that it is not only limited to involute gears but also not all of the gear design parameters are included in the properties panel.<br /><br />One awkward feature of Assembly4 is that you cannot easily change the gear parameters once assembled since they are not visible to the Assembly model.  One workaround is to manually place the gear parameters in the the model as shown in this image, but this generates an out-of-scope warning which as far as I can tell is not fatal.  Still annoying.
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All the gears were created by using the Gears workbench which places a solid gear blank in the Body. But, unfortunately, it does not seem like there is any way to use it in PD without first dragging the gear out of and back into the Body to create a Basefeature to which you can add features.

The alternative is to use the PD > Involute Gear which creates a wire directly in the body that can be immediately padded and features added. The downside is that it is not only limited to involute gears but also not all of the gear design parameters are included in the properties panel.

One awkward feature of Assembly4 is that you cannot easily change the gear parameters once assembled since they are not visible to the Assembly model. One workaround is to manually place the gear parameters in the the model as shown in this image, but this generates an out-of-scope warning which as far as I can tell is not fatal. Still annoying.
Capture26.JPG (310.07 KiB) Viewed 2595 times
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EDIT: To avoid the problem I was having with the gear workbench mentioned in the above caption be sure that you have the Body selected or active before invoking the gear command. This also solves the problem of not being able to access the gear parameters while in the assembly model.

I should note that not all of the motorbike's components are included with the tutorial, maybe only 80%, which is quite disappointing. I am all for including the details. But, hey, it only cost 14 USD, so I should not complain, and it is still a good project comparing FreeCAD with Creo.

Next, I should complete the other half of the overly complex transmission housing then onto final details such as the exhaust piping, brake cables, gas tank, seat, etc. I am not sure If I will create all of the fairing on the bike called out by the tutorial since I am not at all familiar with the Curves workbench. May be time to learn something new. Please stay tuned.

Code: Select all

OS: Windows 10 (10.0)
Word size of FreeCAD: 64-bit
Version: 0.20.28647 (Git)
Build type: Release
Python 3.8.13, Qt 5.12.9, Coin 4.0.0, OCC 7.5.3
Locale: English/United States (en_US)
Installed mods: 
  * Assembly4 0.11.10
  * fasteners 0.3.38
  * FCGear
Last edited by ppemawm on Mon May 02, 2022 1:15 pm, edited 1 time in total.
"It is a poor workman who blames his tools..." ;)
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jonasb
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #4

Post by jonasb »

ppemawm wrote: Fri Apr 29, 2022 8:13 pm All the gears were created by using the Gears workbench which places a solid gear blank in the Body. But, unfortunately, it does not seem like there is any way to use it in PD without first dragging the gear out of and back into the Body to create a Basefeature to which you can add features.
This feature was merged last summer. If a PD body is "active" while invoking a gear command, the gear is added as "additive feature" to that body.
If this does not work for you, please open an issue at the FCGear's repo and ping me (jbaehr) there.
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #4

Post by ppemawm »

jonasb wrote: Sun May 01, 2022 7:43 pm If a PD body is "active" while invoking a gear command, the gear is added as "additive feature" to that body.
Thank you for pointing that out. I must have been doing something wrong but was unable to reproduce it.
I will edit my post appropriately.
"It is a poor workman who blames his tools..." ;)
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Re: V0.20/Assembly4 Challenge--Creo Motorbike (work in progress) Update #5

Post by ppemawm »

The engine-transmission housings are some of the more complex models I've had the opportunity to work on. These four housings (covers for the magneto and clutch pack and the two engine-transmission halves) required 87 sketches for a total of 106 features to fully capture all of the drawing requirements. Needless to say, the provided drawings themselves were complex enough that it took quite some time to fully understand including some trial and error in modeling. No attempt was made to include the myriad of fillets called out on the drawings other than what could be incorporated in sketches. FreeCAD fillets are usually just not worth the effort.

The following images point out to new users several unique FreeCAD capabilities which facilitated the process:

All four of the housings were created in the same Assembly4 file which probably was a mistake since towards the end it was taking several minutes to recompute, nearly unbearable.  Either that or there is an error that I've not been able to track down.  The only error in the Report View is a single out-of-scope link error which I have yet to resolve.  All sketches are fully constrained without any redundant constraints AFAIK.  I resorted to Skip Recomputes at the file level to speed up the sketch process towards the end.<br /><br />Or, maybe it is the extensive use of complex carbon copy sketches within bodies and body-to-body as described in the next images.  I'll have to do some research. but nothing in the documentation (https://wiki.freecadweb.org/Sketcher_CarbonCopy) condemns body-to-body carbon copies.<br /><br />Each of the housing bodies were started at their default global origins located at the assembly interfaces and assembled before modeling using the Assembly4 default LCS constraints.  This gives you the capability to model in place without having to locate sketches using placement properties which can be a bit tedious at times.<br /><br />Note in the assembly container that there are two &quot;Configurations&quot; which have been saved to spreadsheets by the Assembly4 Configuration Panel tool.  I almost always create and save these two configuration versions before starting to model.
All four of the housings were created in the same Assembly4 file which probably was a mistake since towards the end it was taking several minutes to recompute, nearly unbearable. Either that or there is an error that I've not been able to track down. The only error in the Report View is a single out-of-scope link error which I have yet to resolve. All sketches are fully constrained without any redundant constraints AFAIK. I resorted to Skip Recomputes at the file level to speed up the sketch process towards the end.

Or, maybe it is the extensive use of complex carbon copy sketches within bodies and body-to-body as described in the next images. I'll have to do some research. but nothing in the documentation (https://wiki.freecadweb.org/Sketcher_CarbonCopy) condemns body-to-body carbon copies.

Each of the housing bodies were started at their default global origins located at the assembly interfaces and assembled before modeling using the Assembly4 default LCS constraints. This gives you the capability to model in place without having to locate sketches using placement properties which can be a bit tedious at times.

Note in the assembly container that there are two "Configurations" which have been saved to spreadsheets by the Assembly4 Configuration Panel tool. I almost always create and save these two configuration versions before starting to model.
Capture29.JPG (293.01 KiB) Viewed 927 times
Assembly4 has a handy tool (Configuration Panel) for creating different assembled versions in the same file which can help in the modeling process.  Examples include exploded views, optional components, or visibility settings to easily isolate a particular body during modelling in place.<br /><br />As the spreadsheet shows, the visibility and placement of each assembled body are included.  If you place all fasteners in a folder as I typically do then they will not be included in the Configuration Panel.
Assembly4 has a handy tool (Configuration Panel) for creating different assembled versions in the same file which can help in the modeling process. Examples include exploded views, optional components, or visibility settings to easily isolate a particular body during modelling in place.

As the spreadsheet shows, the visibility and placement of each assembled body are included. If you place all fasteners in a folder as I typically do then they will not be included in the Configuration Panel.
Capture30.JPG (290.52 KiB) Viewed 927 times
It is important to locate the first sketch of the body at one of the assembly interface planes and locate any symmetry about the default LCS provided by an Assembly4 Body.  Also, create the features in the same orientation as the assembled position so that you can take maximum advantage of Sketch &gt; CarbonCopy.  I.e. grow the left side housing TOWARDS you in the XZ plane and AWAY from you for the right side housing in the same XZ orientation as in this example.<br /><br />This Sketch063 is a carbon copy of the same Sketch033 used for its mating half.  In this example, I was able to create all of the many bosses and screw holes for BOTH engine housing halves using one 'master sketch'.  For complex housings such as these it can save much time and helps prevent errors. (It can also propagate errors if you are not especially careful).<br /><br />You can also use Sketcher External Reference or PartDesign shapebinders to link the sketches but the sketch geometry has to be recreated which sort of defeats the purpose.
It is important to locate the first sketch of the body at one of the assembly interface planes and locate any symmetry about the default LCS provided by an Assembly4 Body. Also, create the features in the same orientation as the assembled position so that you can take maximum advantage of Sketch > CarbonCopy. I.e. grow the left side housing TOWARDS you in the XZ plane and AWAY from you for the right side housing in the same XZ orientation as in this example.

This Sketch063 is a carbon copy of the same Sketch033 used for its mating half. In this example, I was able to create all of the many bosses and screw holes for BOTH engine housing halves using one 'master sketch'. For complex housings such as these it can save much time and helps prevent errors. (It can also propagate errors if you are not especially careful).

You can also use Sketcher External Reference or PartDesign shapebinders to link the sketches but the sketch geometry has to be recreated which sort of defeats the purpose.
Capture31.JPG (329.21 KiB) Viewed 927 times
This is another example of using sketch CarbonCopy at the assembly interface between the engine housing and the clutch cover housing.  Sketch061 for the right side engine half is taken from the clutch cover Sketch033 which was created first.<br /><br />In a complex model it is helpful to label each feature as they are created in case you need to make changes or need to troubleshoot any problems.  <br /><br />Another unique FreeCAD feature is the ability to add or move features in the model after they have been created so long as you have not attached sketches to any model edges or faces.  All of sketches for these four housings were attached only to origin planes or the datum planes for the angled cylinder and head features.<br /><br />If you look carefully at the tree you can see several features that are not numerically sequential meaning that these I had to go back and add. A well thought out modeling sequence is important before starting since it is easy to paint your self into a corner with complex models such as these.  But, fortunately the ability to move or add features in the tree can prevent having to start over with a model after investing hours of work.
This is another example of using sketch CarbonCopy at the assembly interface between the engine housing and the clutch cover housing. Sketch061 for the right side engine half is taken from the clutch cover Sketch033 which was created first.

In a complex model it is helpful to label each feature as they are created in case you need to make changes or need to troubleshoot any problems.

Another unique FreeCAD feature is the ability to add or move features in the model after they have been created so long as you have not attached sketches to any model edges or faces. All of sketches for these four housings were attached only to origin planes or the datum planes for the angled cylinder and head features.

If you look carefully at the tree you can see several features that are not numerically sequential meaning that these I had to go back and add. A well thought out modeling sequence is important before starting since it is easy to paint your self into a corner with complex models such as these. But, fortunately the ability to move or add features in the tree can prevent having to start over with a model after investing hours of work.
Capture33.JPG (357.55 KiB) Viewed 927 times
Finally, adding fasteners in Assembly4 is a pure pleasure.  The many screws required for these housings were added either as polar link arrays or via a sketch as shone in this image.  <br /><br />Simply make the same sketch used to create the screw holes visible, CTRL select each circle and then add an Assembly4 Hole Axis constraint.  I usually do this as the last step in the model tree for each body.  This will give you all the LCS's needed for assembling each screw without having to add the axis to the model feature edges or vertices after assembly. That self-dependency shortcut will result in a fragile model since any changes or additions to the body features will invariably blow up the assembly.  Sketch edges are usually safer but you do need to be extra careful with master sketches and carbon copy. Any major sketch changes can also result in the topological renaming problem that not only breaks models but also assemblies based on this procedure.
Finally, adding fasteners in Assembly4 is a pure pleasure. The many screws required for these housings were added either as polar link arrays or via a sketch as shone in this image.

Simply make the same sketch used to create the screw holes visible, CTRL select each circle and then add an Assembly4 Hole Axis constraint. I usually do this as the last step in the model tree for each body. This will give you all the LCS's needed for assembling each screw without having to add the axis to the model feature edges or vertices after assembly. That self-dependency shortcut will result in a fragile model since any changes or additions to the body features will invariably blow up the assembly. Sketch edges are usually safer but you do need to be extra careful with master sketches and carbon copy. Any major sketch changes can also result in the topological renaming problem that not only breaks models but also assemblies based on this procedure.
Capture32.JPG (175.91 KiB) Viewed 927 times
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The next step is to assemble all of the engine and transmission sub-assemblies with these housings and then add the engine sub-assembly to the bike frame using its single LCS constraint. After that, all that is left to do is all the rest. :)

Code: Select all

OS: Windows 10 (10.0)
Word size of FreeCAD: 64-bit
Version: 0.20.28774 (Git)
Build type: Release
Python 3.8.13, Qt 5.12.9, Coin 4.0.0, OCC 7.5.3
Locale: English/United States (en_US)
Installed mods: 
  * Assembly4 0.11.10
  * fasteners 0.3.41
  * fcgear 1.0.0
"It is a poor workman who blames his tools..." ;)
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